1.1.2 Apology ( 17a – 42a)



In his early work, — perhaps written when Phililp was still helping Plato edit LAWS — Aristotle does ironic work with the front end of the name ‘Speusippos’, one of the ‘-ippos’ family, so the irony may be compounded, Speusippos and Philippos being rhetorically demoted together.   Proclus couples the two youngish platonists (neither one the young Aristotle).   He cleverly contrives to  call them ‘Speusippos kai Amphinomos’  [Friedlein edn  p. 77,15], and thus couples them, but avoids the overly clever punning on names.  Proclus manages thus to steer away from encoding the two names so as to make them both ‘-ippos’ men.

Eudoxus’s academic astronomer-colleague Kallippos fits under the same name-suffix.  Kallippus of course shares in many of the special facets with both Aristotle and Philip:   all 3 are adept at astronomy, so Aristotle in his Met. Lambda review of planetary motions and their causes.   It is surprising that Leonardo Taran, omits the pair Kallippos/Eudoxos in his tract on the famous phrase, from both Rep. X and from Aristotle elsewhere :  ‘amicus Plato, sed magis amica Veritas’.    Aristotle in Met Lambda works the variation we ma paraphrase as ‘amici sunt Kalippos et Eudoxos, sed magis amica akribeia’  “both Kalippos and Eudoxus are friends, but what lets me prefer one to the other is his closer approach to complete accuracy [sc. about the number of ‘spheres’ his theory requires for the cosmic orrery of the sky].

Diogenes Laertius is later to take sides with those who attribute to the ‘Socrates’ of Lives of Eminent Men II, 47, his writing on physical topics, following Anaxagoras  but also, continues DL, setting forth his own Ionian-like views, rather than echo those of Anaxagoras [the famous matter of ‘meteoroscopy and study of the earth beneath’.   Famously this was made part of what the Apology  refutes and disowns.  But that was another Socrates at issue, so says DL.  Do consider this set of pointers to a youngish Aristotle writing allusively about Amphinomus and Speusippus:


Speusippos, Arist’s ironic use of first syllable in his name EN IV,8 1125a14 r2

Thesleff rightly observes that Plato almost never quotes himself  (Laches analysis, 2012).

Below you can click on a scholiast (Philip of Opus I believe), writing in the margin at

Venetus T’s Tim. 42b1.    Mr. NewSocrates, unhappy about the “-krates” punning — by

the ’eminently wise Plato’.  [Who but Philip would have had access to thecopy  from

Early Academy Olymp. 105 copy of both Apol. and Tim. ?  I agree,

however, with Thesleff, ibid. n 63 in his semi-skeptical view of this matter.]  In any case this scholiast is

here seen to cite Plato (sarcastically, — turning this against Plato !)   He here

angrily retorts,  — we may say of him ‘neon onta’ as Philip had been

many Olympiads earlier,  but alas preserved his ‘juvenile’ irascibility, like a

Philo-toioutos as Aristotle will soon say of him, drawing on his own coined word.   Philip had been, and remained alas — a juvenile and a ‘megalophronetic’ man.

“You are a FOOL O Plato like Aristophanes, our old adversary  ” shouts NewSocrates

in the margin of one of Plato’s chief works:

scholion to Tim 42b1, O Supremely Wise Plato (259r), r5



Apology of Socrates

17a1-17d4 (8r) beginning of Apology

17d4-19a1-20a5 (8v)

20a5-21a6-22b1 (9r)

22b1-23b6-24c1 (9v)

24c1-25b8-26c3 (10r)

26c3-27c1-28b9 (10v)

28b9-29b7-30c1 (11r)

30c1-31c1-32c5 (11v)

32c5-33c7-34d1 (12r)

34d1-35d2-36d8 (12v)

36d8-37e6-39a3 (13r)

39a3-40a8-41b1 (13v)

41v1-42a5 (14r) end of Apology